Police-Community Relation is a slowly evolving policing system that is gaining recognition internationally.  It is a policing system that can be equated with diplomacy such that even the subjects of policing actions view the system as the most acceptable form of Police-Community interaction to ferret out crimes, do some public safety related police work, or just carry out plain maintenance of peace and order. 

     Edward Davis, the Chief of Police of California postulated that the ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent upon public approval of police existence, actions, behavior, and the ability of the police to secure and maintain public respect.  There is that feeling of public acceptance when its existence, actions and behavior were not routinely criticized, maligned, or branded with unacceptable languages or treated with synonymous situation that can already be considered as a hostile environment.  Otherwise, it will truly be difficult for police officers to work under a stressful scenario as it can also spark human emotions and cultivate friction points. 

     Police work is intrinsically reactive.  Michael Trimoglie wrote in his paper that a police officer is never called when things are going well.  They are only called when there is a problem, usually a critical one.  It is only natural that police receive the criticism that they do.  After all, any occupation charged with the responsibility of bringing order out of chaos or enforcing the rules- baseball umpires, building inspectors, referees, etc.- are going to be controversial positions.  Police officers have only a set of narrowly defined objectives- and a body of law that is continually subject to revision and interpretation- to guide them.  Given the urgency of the plight in which police usually find themselves, it is a wonder that the police are able to perform their duties with as little controversy as they do.  There is no question that many times police are forced to act intuitively, yet, this is not the characterization of police that is rendered to the public.  Police work is rarely presented to the public in a positive light.  The mainstream liberal media seem to think that police work is not entertaining unless it is in a quandary.  The thousands of acts each day that police officers perform or demonstrate, the mainstream media never mentions their compassion, their competence, and their fidelity.  However, let a police officer make an error, then a torrent of invective is let loose.  Also, special interest groups that profit from police controversies begin campaigns demonizing the police. Their propaganda campaign is used to discredit the police thereby assisting in the settlement of substantial lawsuits, or worse, a collapse of an entire case.  This special interest groups; like the National Democratic fronts (NDF), Trial Lawyers Association, so-called social activist’s organizations like KARAPATAN, GABRIELA, et. al., are doing nothing more than disparaging the police for their own political or financial gain.  So adroit are these groups at hate mongering and the use of scare tactics that they are able to enlist the aid of a willing and compliant mainstream media.  The result is that public opinion is swayed very easily against the police.  In such an environment, the rank and file police officer cannot depend on politicians for support.  They cannot depend on the media for a voice and neither can they disregard public opinion. 

     Some experts claim that the social phenomenon known as public perception can be seen as the difference between an absolute truth based on facts and a virtual truth shaped by popular opinion, media coverage and/or reputation. Celebrities, politicians and even police organizations all face the same scrutiny by the public they serve, and it can be very difficult to overcome a negative public perception.  On the other hand, experts added that Public perception is not necessarily inaccurate or based on something other than the truth.  The public at large can often receive enough factual information in order to form a general opinion about a public figure, celebrity or police organization without relying on innuendo or unfounded rumors.  There can be instances, however, when public perception of a situation is affected by other issues, such as cultural bias or prejudice.  A defendant accused of a heinous criminal act may or may not be guilty of the actual crime, but public perception of that type of crime can be difficult for a judge or fact finding committee to ignore while deliberating.  It is this public perception that police finds difficulty in discharging their respective duties in the communities as police view this phenomenon as a challenging reality that may affect, or at worst destroy, their respective careers. 

     The Philippine National Police today continue to reinvent its policing system on the fast growing communities and as communities grew, social interaction becomes complex as social inventions interfaced with various issues in the community that sometimes develop into a problem on peace and order. 

In the growing complexities in the environment, policing the communities has become a growing headache for police organizations as policing systems are finding difficulties to cope with the demands of the times.  This is also largely caused by work attitudes of Police elements in the City Police Stations/Municipal Police Stations (CPS/MPS) where some administrative works mandated by law such as protection and preservation of environment, cultural properties and natural resources; campaign against illegal drugs; activities pertaining to security preparations and disaster preparedness, have crowded the already busy schedule of police officers in the streets and confused the Chief of Police.  Partly also, the seeming attitudinal inaction of the police is blamed on the thinking that the public view the police as inept, corrupt and abusive.  In short, at the station level, it is already quite difficult to push action plans that may enhance police and community relations. 

At present also, the operational management at police stations is deemed soaked with systems that fail due largely, to the inability of Chiefs of Police (COPs) to optimize utilization of human and material resources and party because of bad work culture and work habits of police elements at the station. (Among which is the 1-day-duty-one-day-off practice, 15-30 work appearances, details of personnel to politicians and wealthy businessman, details to secure vital installations that are not public corporation, etc.). Specifically, it fails also probably because of an orientation or mindset of the police officers that is not consistent with the intent of the framers of the PNP law, and the poor leadership ability, or the lack of it, of small unit leaders who, despite appropriate training, have not learned how to exercise small unit management. 

A quick review of the present practice in policing vis-à-vis the intent provided by PNP law appears that the policing practice is concentrated more on projects that are operational results oriented and not an activity oriented.  It still shows a very strong indication of military mindset that was influenced by members coming from the defunct Philippine Constabulary (PC) who joined the PNP in 1991.  On one hand, the PNP Law (RA 8551) under the Title I, Sec. 2, Second Paragraph (declaration of Policy and Principles) provides that;


Which clearly, the intension of the framers of the law provides for a police system that is an activity oriented (community based and service oriented) and not a result or a mission oriented policing system. 

On the other hand, Sec 24, CHAPTER III of RA 6975, (PNP Law) provides in part;

                  xxx “The PNP shall have the following powers and functions;

 1. Enforce the laws and ordinances relative to the protection of lives and properties;

 2. Maintain peace and order and take all necessary steps to ensure   public safety;

 3. Investigate and prevent crimes, effect the arrest of criminal offenders, bring offenders to justice and assist in their prosecution.” xxx

        Interestingly, the PNP outlines its MISSION STATEMENT as follows 


The above mission statement is very similar to the first three paragraphs of the eight broad functions defined in Sec. 24, of RA 8551 as amended.  Notice that the first two paragraphs a, and b, of Sec 24, RA 6975, are crime prevention activities.  In paragraph a. the primary function of the police is to enforce laws and ordinances relative to the protection of lives and properties.  Which means, the conduct of law enforcement and other related police activities that prevent the movement of instruments of crimes (such as; firearms and other sharp objects through the conduct of check points, patrol operations, stop and frisk, etc.) and limit the movement of people with criminal minds from harming others and stealing other’s properties.  In Para b., the framers of the law intend that police should conduct police activities that will deny criminal minds of the opportunity to commit crimes, harmonize a smoother community interaction, and initiate activities that protect the public from any danger, either man-made or act of nature, and mitigate its effects.  It should logically mean that police should anticipate or intervene with obtaining events that are potential for conflict in order to maintain peace and order in the environment.  It also mandates the conduct of activities that prevent anybody from harming any member of the community or of harming self (barricaded situation or suicide), or of being negligent that causes injury to others, or require anybody to take action to prepare, act and mitigate result of both manmade and natural disasters.  This function stipulated under Para b., however, is a shared responsibly of the police with the local government units (as provided by the local government code of 1991, RA 8551).  The Law enforcement, and the maintenance of peace and order and public safety functions, are two important functions that are categorized as crime prevention activities and the framers of the law put these important provisions above all other police functions (about 8 of them) to emphasize and prioritize its importance and yet, the police organization concentrated mostly in solving crimes (para 3) putting most of their manpower and financial resources to a function that is not the sole responsibility of the police.  More often, when a particular case failed to even get a day in court, it is the police that get the blame.   In Para c., it mandates the police to conduct activities to intervene with the progress of the crime and, if intervention failed to prevent its consummation, to effect arrest and assist in the prosecution of the offenders. This function however is a shared responsibility of the police with four (4) other Government Pillars of the Criminal Justice System, – The Prosecution, The Courts, Corrections and the Community.  When the police therefore are already performing activities related to the solution of the crime, (conducting arrest, crime suppression, and assisting in its prosecution) then the police is approximating a failure in its first two stated basic powers and functions.

There might be a need to reinvent the policing orientation of the police officers in the streets to be consistent with the declaration of policy and principles and be attuned to the functions stated in Sec 24, CHP III of RA 6975.  The PNP should reorient the mindset of police officers through the development of transformation ideology that reflects the character of every police officer as a well rounded PCR man, as good fathers to all the kids, friends to the working adults and loving sons to the elderly.  The DPCR therefore, shall endeavor to develop a police force that is Community and Service Oriented first, and a law enforcer second. 

  1. Vision 

The DPCR envisions the evolution of Police Units and Police Officers into a “community and service” oriented organization working in partnership with a cooperative community towards a peaceful, orderly, safer and harmonious community interactions. (Title I, Sec 2. Para 2, RA 8551).

  1. Mission

      The DPCR shall develop, guide and steer a “community and service oriented” police organizations in forging relationship with, informing, persuading, shaping perception of, and mobilizing the communities towards the need for respect for laws, maintenance of peace and orderliness, and safety of environment. (Title I, Sec 2, para 2, RA 8551, and Sec 24 para a & b, RA 8551)

  1. Functions
  1. Formulates Police-Community Relations (PCR) plans, programs, and policies geared towards enhancing community and citizen’s participation in support of the operational plans of the Philippine National Police; 
  2. Exercises primary staff supervision in the planning, direction, coordination, supervision and monitoring of all programs and activities pertaining to Public Information that enhances Police-Community Relations (PCR);
  3. Develops plans and programs designed to generate and shape good public perception towards the government in general and the PNP in particular;
  4. Conducts studies and researches to assist national policy-makers in developing laws, plans and programs that are community based, service oriented and gender sensitive, and are geared towards the maintenance of peace and order and the enhancement of public safety
  5. Forges relationship with communities and assists other government agencies and Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) in the conduct of community mobilization activities contributory to the maintenance of peace, order and safety; and
  6. Conducts coordination and liaising, and appropriate policing work for foreign nationals and cultural minorities, living, in transient or doing business in the Philippines.
  1. PCRism; A Community Oriented Policing Ideology

What is Community Policing?

Community policing is a philosophy that promotes organizational strategies, which support the systematic use of partnerships and problem-solving techniques, to proactively address the immediate conditions that give rise to public safety issues such as crime, social disorder, and fear of crime.  Community policing is comprised of three key components:

  • Community Partnerships – Collaborative partnerships between the law enforcement agency and the individuals and organizations they serve to develop solutions to problems and increase trust in police;
    • Other Government Agencies
    • Community Members/Groups
    • Nonprofits/Service Providers
    • Private Businesses
    • Media
  • Organizational Transformation – The alignment of organizational management, structure, personnel, and information systems to support community partnerships and proactive problem solving.

Agency Management

  • Climate and culture
  • Leadership
  • Labor relations
  • Decision-making
  • Strategic planning
  • Policies
  • Organizational evaluations
  • Transparency
  • Organizational Structure

Geographic assignment of officers

  • Despecialization
  • Resources and finances


  • Recruitment, hiring, and selection
  • Personnel supervision/evaluations
  • Training

Information Systems (Technology)

  • Communication/access to data
  • Quality and accuracy of data
  • Problem Solving – The process of engaging in the proactive and systematic examination of identified problems to develop and rigorously evaluate effective responses.
    • Scanning: Identifying and prioritizing problems
    • Analysis: Researching what is known about the problem
    • Response: Developing solutions to bring about lasting reductions in the number and extent of problems
    • Assessment: Evaluating the success of the responses
    • Using the crime triangle to focus on immediate conditions (victim/offender/location)

Community Policing also revolves around the basic principle that the “Police are the Public and the Public are the Police” (Principle #7, Sir Robert Peel, Founder of the British Police system).  It is a policing concept that requires every member of the community to exercise self policing, restraint other members against doing things that may harm each other, and require other members to conduct themselves in an orderly interaction.  Requiring community members to follow certain orderly interaction means specific obedience to set of rules or common beliefs and aspirations with the community.  It is necessary therefore that the basic policing in the community should focus on the core concept of Police Community Relations.  A policing concept that wins the trust, confidence and support of the people in the community such that policing becomes a norm and not just obedience to set of rules.  When community policing becomes a way of life in the community, then there will be no more need for organizations to police the community. 

Community policing is simply a way of life, a harmonious coexistence, a peaceful and an orderly interaction with one another.  This is facilitated when members share common belief and may therefore be mobilized under a common cause.  To influence greater numbers of member individuals for a common cause, it may require these basic steps: 

  • Forging Relationships – establishing relations, either personal or professional, is a key factor that establishes credibility and confidence in order that the information intended to be conveyed to the other party can be trusted and relied upon. 
  • Use of Information – Public Information is a vital tool that raises awareness and knowledge that creates impression over certain facts. When various information becomes substantial to form a belief that a thing is probably true or an event is certain to happen, then the credibility of the source and the reliability and accuracy of the information becomes a persuasive tool to influence not only in shaping the perception but also even the decision-making of the receiver of the information. 
  • Shaping perceptions and influencing their thoughts – when the use of information is properly done, (i.e. appropriate in the environment), then the educative and illuminative process of injecting information to the consciousness of the receiver becomes the dominant and the controlling factor that affects the decision making process of the receiver of the information. 
  • Community organization and Mobilization – The visible indicators that community perceptions have been shaped-favoring law enforcement action is the reduced resistance or non-resistance of the members of the community towards any forms of policing actions, and their open willingness to be organized and form groups for the welfare of the community and harmony of its interaction. This willingness to participate in policing action is necessarily construed to mean “Public Support”. In community policing however, mere “public cooperation” would be sufficient for the police as this would mean working in a non-hostile environment.

What are the activities in Community Policing? 

Community Policing is a system that links and bonds the Police to the Community that also means a stronger and cohesive community interactions.  Exchanges of information is fast due to established Police-Community Relations, each one knows one another, talk to and trust each other, and confident that their police can be relied upon for keeping the peace and making the community safer.  Policing the community can be done through just three (3) types of activities: patrol activities, organizational work and community interactions.

  • Patrol activities – These activities are conducted so that police and its auxiliaries can be seen and felt by the community. This can be accomplished with Patrolling combined with other patrol related activities such as;
  • Traffic Direction and Control – to keep the movement of people and goods in an orderly manner and avoid potentials for conflict. 
  • Fixed and Mobile checkpoints – to deny the proliferation and movement of instruments of crime, and prevent movement of people with criminal records and intents. Enforcement of traffic laws/ordinances, Firearms laws, Drug and Human Trafficking laws, Anti-fencing and Piracy laws, etc. that protects lives and properties can also be done alongside the patrol and checkpoint activities. 
  • “Standing and watch” duties – a visibility form of duty that is intended for the protection of important public vital installations and establishment such as communication towers, bridges, bank etc. Policemen on duty in the streets should not sit.  It is an indication of laziness and inefficiency, and a proof that he is not doing any police work.
  • Beat Patrol Duties – a “walk and observe” duties that protect pedestrians, workers, houses, streets, offices, etc., from being molested and burglarized by criminals. It is also the avenue where communicating with people takes place and forges friendly relations with the members of the community.  The Police connects and communicates with the kids; know their standing and problems in homes and in schools, how they fare with other kids and their relationships with their mentors, their neighbors and their peers in the streets.  The police acts like a second father and compliments some form of discipline that have not been given by their (kids’) respective parents.  The Police also communicate with adults about the crimes in the area, talk to neighbors that are insensitive and unmindful of the noises of their karaoke’s, the howling of their pets or the poorly kept trashes that invade the privacy of other houses.  The police records these potential for conflict and move for some compromise in between.  During the beat, the police also undertakes to check houses whose owners were on out-of- town visits, checks on those elderly that are sick and those that are living alone and take some little action to serve them, bring them food and medicines and console them during their lonely isolation.  The police keeps track of various problems in the community and records them starting from problems on sanitation, health, engineering, livelihood to other social imperfections, and renders reports to appropriate office with a call for an organized inter-agency, social and medical missions. 
  • Organizational works – Community policing cannot be undertaken solely by the police. It will need the help of various sectors in the community organized for various purposes to help in the maintenance of peace and orderliness not only in the streets but in most community interactions.  The following organizations are material in the upkeep of peace and order and public safety activities. 
  • Barangay Peacekeeping Action Teams (BPATS) –
  • Anti-Drug Councils and Movements
  • Council of Elders
  • Radio and Social Networking Clubs
  • Fire and Disaster Brigades
  • Livelihood Cooperatives
  • Sports Club
  • Skills Development Club
  • Community Interaction – It is an indispensable tool in bringing the police closer to the people. It is a police activity where the police becomes very visible and its presence is physically felt by the community.  Community interaction is done in two ways; the Area Visit and the House Visit: 
  • Area Visit – The Community or Area visit is conducted for several specific purposes and is designed to attain following objectives using an 8-man team composition. 
  • A police visibility or presence to neutralize or drive out a larger group of insurgents or criminal gangs in the community. If needed, the 8 man team, which may come from PSMC assisting the Community BPAT supervisor or from the MPS/CPS or a combination of both, shall patrol the area, check some specific target, serve warrants or check tasks embodied in the 6 campaign plans (from illegal logging, illegal fishing and illegal poaching to sketching road maps and updating important routes and reference points).  After the Area check, to reorganize the team into 2-man team for the conduct of House Visit, and interact with the occupants, gather some information, record the area and household profiles and,
  • Conduct peripheral visit and Forge relationship with the people found in the area by conducting an interpersonal dialogue, establish rapport and offer friendship. 
  • Educate the people in the community about recent news or showbiz item that many capture their interest and when reciprocated, volunteer other information about current events, livelihood and important laws that may affect their lives.

b)  House Visit – it is an interpersonal interaction that brings police closer to the communities, connects the police with the public, informs the community of various matters that affects their lives starting from issues involving peace and order, laws that affects their daily activities (FAs, Anti-fencing, Anti-Illegal drug and human trafficking. etc), economics, social and cultural issues, health, social inventions, to as odd as lives of celebrities.  Talk about the need to follow house rules as an effective means of securing discipline in the family and the essence of following the wisdom of the community elders.


Important Policy statement and Legal basis

            Title I, Sec 2. RA 8551:  Declaration of Policy and Principles. – It is hereby declared the policy of the State to establish highly efficient and competent police force that is national in scope and civilian in character, administered and controlled by a National Police Commission.

The PNP shall be a community and service oriented agency responsible for the maintenance of peace and order and public safety. The PNP shall be so organized to ensure accountability and uprightness in police exercise of discretion as well as to achieve efficiency and effectiveness of its members and units in the performance of these functions (RA 8551).

Section 24. Powers and Functions. – The PNP shall have the following powers and functions:

  1. Enforce all laws and ordinances relative to the protection of lives and properties;
  2. Maintain peace and order and take all necessary steps to ensure public safety;
  3. Investigate and prevent crimes, effect the arrest of criminal offenders, bring offenders to justice and assist in their prosecution;
  4. Exercise the general powers to make arrest, search and seizure in accordance with the Constitution and pertinent laws;
  5. Detain an arrested person for a period not beyond what is prescribed by law, informing the person so detained of all his rights under the Constitution;
  6. Issue licenses for the possession of firearms and explosives in accordance with law;
  7. Supervise and control the training and operations of security agencies and issue licenses to operate security agencies, and to security guards and private detectives, for the practice of their professions; and
  8. Perform such other duties and exercise all other functions as may be provided by law.


 To Serve and Protect; A principal paradigm of Policing

The greatest leader who ever lived said, “I came not to BE served, but TO serve.” And, “he who would be greatest among you must be the servant of all.” To restore the public’s trust we must change our culture and commit to a Community policing paradigm built on honor, service, and responsibility.

  1. An interactive partnership between the police and the community, in which citizens have input into the setting of local police department priorities; 
  2. The return of community police officers who patrol in a manner which no longer isolates them from citizens; 
  3. Human resources, both within and outside police departments, will be more emphasized than the hardware and high technology; 
  4. Police organizations will be adaptable to changing environments and will confront the emerging issues of the day, whether they be criminal, legal or political; 
  5. Police organizations will operate much like private organizations, with a greater emphasis on quality service, core values, accountability and cost effectiveness; 
  6. Partnership with the community will be a central focus. Police managers will recognize the interconnectedness between their activities and those of other public services, such as housing, welfare and employment agencies. The police of the future will view themselves as one part of a community-wide effort to not only deal with crime but to improve community life in general.


Important Basic Principles of Community Policing

The DPCR shall assist the appropriate directorates in the conceptualization of community oriented training and program development of police officers through an appropriate reorientation training strategy in order to develop a policing ideology anchored on the following Professional Police Principles mostly derived from the writings of Sir Robert Peel, Founder of the British Police system, and Edward Davies, the Chief of Police of California.

             Principle No. 1. –  PREVENTION OF CRIME IS THE BASIC MISSION OF THE POLICE. The basic mission of the Police is to prevent crime and ensure a Peaceful and Orderly Community interaction without the necessity of resulting into a military intervention to repress crime and severity of legal punishment.  The need therefore to enforce laws and ordinances that protect lives and properties and maintenance of peace and order, are preconditions that limit the formation of conflict in the environment and therefore ensure public order and safety.  When the Police are already in crime deterrence and control function, then it is approximating a failure to perform its basic mission.

Principle No. 2. –  POLICE MUST BE RESPECTED BY THE COMMUNITY. The ability of the Police to perform their duties is dependent upon public approval of police existence, actions, behavior, and the ability of the Police to secure and maintain public respect.

           Arthur Nietherhoffer, a 20 year old New York police lieutenant wrote in his book that he believes that American police tend to hide a self pity syndrome; they tend to become paranoid and withdrawn.  Edward M Davis, the Chief of Police of the City of Los Angeles wrote that policemen should not be caught up in this “Nietherhoffer Syndrome” because no policeman can work in a hostile environment.

             Principle No. 3. – A CITIZEN’S RESPECT FOR LAW DEVELOPS HIS RESPECT FOR THE POLICE.  The police must secure the willing cooperation of the public in voluntary observance of the law to be able to secure and maintain the respect and approval of the public.

            The Police must have a conscious and deliberate effort to influence the community about the need to enjoin or at the very least, persuade every citizen not to violate the law or tolerate amongst those who do.  Let every citizen in the community realize that to violate the law, is to tear the character of his own and his children’s freedom and rights.  Let obedience to laws be breathed by every parents behind their children’s necks… Let it be taught in schools, let the Police convey same to as many listeners as possible through leaflets, newsletters, primers, in the tri-media, in speaking engagements, and in the inter-personal interactions during area or house visits.  Persuade the priests and the pastors to preach it in the homily and in short, let reverence for the law become the air breathed by the community.

             Principle No. 4. – COOPERATION OF THE PUBLIC DECREASES AS THE USE OF FORCE INCREASES.  The degree of cooperation of the public that can be secured diminishes proportionately the necessity for the use of physical force and compulsion in achieving police objectives.  An Officer with the ability to firmly but pleasantly solicit the cooperation of individual or groups can frequently accomplish, through their cooperation, what it might take scores of officers to accomplish through the use of a “hard” approach to the situation.  In areas where there has been a pattern of using strong physical force to achieve police objectives, a concurrent pattern of resistance develops within the individual or group.  The result is resistance and lack of cooperation on the part of the law violator and the subsequent necessity for resorting to force on the part of the police.  The use of force is thus self-perpetuating.

             Principle No. 5. – THE POLICE MUST RENDER IMPARTIAL ENFORCEMENT OF THE LAW.  The police seek and preserve public favor, not by service to the law, in complete independence of policy, and without regard to the justice or injustice of the substance of individuals; by ready offering of individual service and friendship to all members of society without regard to their race or social standing; by ready exercise of courtesy and friendly good humor; and by ready offering of individual sacrifice in protecting and preserving life.

            It is not the job of a policeman to determine what the legislators should say what constitute a crime.  It is not the mission of the police to judge whether any law is good, bad, too harsh, or too lenient.  Laws are made by the legislators and are an imperfect reflection of society’s mores.  Laws are subject to change.  However, when the law is established, it is job of the policeman to enforce that law impartially.

            Principle No. 6 – PHYSICAL FORCE IS USED ONLY AS A LAST RESORT. The Police should use physical force to the extent necessary to secure observance of the law or to restore order only when the exercise of persuasion, advice, and warning is found to be insufficient to achieve police objectives; and police should use only the minimum degree of physical force which is necessary on any particular occasion for achieving a police objective.

             Principle No. 7. –  THE POLICE ARE THE PUBLIC AND THE PUBLIC ARE THE POLICE.  The Police at all times should maintain a relationship with the public that gives reality to the historic tradition that the police are the public and the public are the police;  The Police are the only members of the public who are paid to give full-time attention to duties which are incumbent on every citizen in the interest of community welfare.

            Principle No. 8. – POLICE REPRESENTS THE LAW. The police should always direct their actions strictly towards their functions and never appear to usurp the powers of the Judiciary by avenging individuals, of the state, or authority judging guilt or punishing the guilty.

            Principle No. 9. – THE ABSENCE OF CRIME AND DISORDER IS THE TEST OF POLICE EFFECIENCY. The test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder, not the visible evidence of police action in dealing with them.